View controller delegation in SwiftUI

Jan 31, 2020 · Follow on Twitter and Mastodon swiftuiuikit

Presenting UIKit view controllers in SwiftUI is simple, but things become more complicated when they communicate through delegation. In this post, we’ll look at a way to solve this.


Since SwiftUI is still young, there are many situations where you may have to use native UIKit views or view controllers, e.g. to compose e-mails, share data etc.

You may also have your own view controllers that you want to reuse in SwiftUI, until you have had a chance to migrate them to SwiftUI.

Presenting a UIKit view controller in SwiftUI is easy. For instance, presenting a share sheet just requires you to create a UIViewControllerRepresentable that wraps the sheet:

struct ShareSheet: UIViewControllerRepresentable {
    typealias Callback = (
        _ activityType: UIActivity.ActivityType?, 
        _ completed: Bool, 
        _ returnedItems: [Any]?, 
        _ error: Error?) -> Void
    let activityItems: [Any]
    let applicationActivities: [UIActivity]?
    let excludedActivityTypes: [UIActivity.ActivityType]?
    let callback: Callback?
    func makeUIViewController(
        context: Context
    ) -> UIActivityViewController {
        let controller = UIActivityViewController(
            activityItems: activityItems,
            applicationActivities: applicationActivities
        controller.excludedActivityTypes = excludedActivityTypes
        controller.completionWithItemsHandler = callback
        return controller
    func updateUIViewController(
        _ uiViewController: UIActivityViewController, 
        context: Context
    ) {
        // Nothing to see here, carry on

You can then present the share sheet as a SwiftUI sheet:

.sheet(isPresented: $isSheetActive) { ShareSheet(someData) }

This will present the sheet in a modal to share any data you like. You can also specify optional application activities, excluded activity types and callbacks.

View controllers with delegation

Things become a little more complicated if a view controller communicates back using a delegate, since SwiftUI views are structs that can’t be used as delegates.

One solution is to use a coordinator, which you can create and return as a nested class:

struct MyView: View {
    class Coordinator {}
    func makeCoordinator() -> Coordinator {

Although the view is a struct and can be recreated whenever needed, the coordinator will be kept as a single instance, and can therefore be used as a delegate.

If a delegating view controller is used in many places, you can compose coordinators to avoid duplicating code. This is however unusual.

Another approach is to have a delegate class for each view controller that uses delegation.

For instance, say that we want to use the Vision-based VNDocumentCameraViewController, which communicates events to a VNDocumentCameraViewControllerDelegate.

First, let’s wrap the view controller in a UIViewControllerRepresentable:

struct DocumentCamera: UIViewControllerRepresentable {

    init(delegate: VNDocumentCameraViewControllerDelegate) {
        self.delegate = delegate

    private let delegate: VNDocumentCameraViewControllerDelegate
    func makeUIViewController(context: Context) -> VNDocumentCameraViewController {
        let controller = VNDocumentCameraViewController()
        controller.delegate = delegate
        return controller
    func updateUIViewController(_ uiViewController: VNDocumentCameraViewController, context: Context) {}

If your view has a coordinator that implements VNDocumentCameraViewControllerDelegate, you can just provide that coordinator when you create a DocumentCamera.

We can also implement a DocumentCamera delegate that use action blocks to communicate delegate events back to the view:

extension DocumentCamera {
    class Delegate: NSObject, VNDocumentCameraViewControllerDelegate {
            didCancel: @escaping EmptyAction,
            didFail: @escaping ModelAction<Error>,
            didFinish: @escaping ModelAction<VNDocumentCameraScan>) {
            self.didCancel = didCancel
            self.didFail = didFail
            self.didFinish = didFinish
        private let didCancel: EmptyAction
        private let didFail: ModelAction<Error>
        private let didFinish: ModelAction<VNDocumentCameraScan>
        func documentCameraViewControllerDidCancel(_ controller: VNDocumentCameraViewController) {
        func documentCameraViewController(_ controller: VNDocumentCameraViewController, didFailWithError error: Error) {
        func documentCameraViewController(_ controller: VNDocumentCameraViewController, didFinishWith scan: VNDocumentCameraScan) {

This approach lets you bind the delegate events to actions directly within the view. A view can now present the camera with this delegate and provide its own actions, like this:

.sheet(isPresented: $isSheetActive) {
    DocumentCamera(delegate: DocumentCamera.Delegate(
        didCancel: { ... }
        didFail: { error in ... }
        didFinish: { scan in ... }

I personally prefer this approach, since it makes the DocumentCamera class provide you with everything you need. All you have to do is to inject the functions you want it to trigger.

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